Monday, 13 October 2014

Today in History October 13 First Ebola virus disease case.

October 13 is the 286th day of the year. There are 79 days remaining until the end of the year.
7042 lores-Ebola-Zaire-CDC Photo.jpgToday's Highlight in History- The first electron micrograph of an Ebola viral particle is obtained by Dr. F.A. Murphy, now at U.C. Davis, who was then working at the C.D.C.
Ebola virus virion.jpg

Ebola virus disease (EVD), Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) or simply Ebola is a disease of humans and other mammals caused by an ebolavirus. Symptoms start two days to three weeks after contracting the virus, with a fever, sore throat, muscle pain and headaches. Typically, vomiting, diarrhea and rash follow, along with decreased function of the liver and kidneys. Around this time, affected people may begin to bleed both within the body and externally.
Frederick A. Murphy, DVM, PhD, is widely recognized for obtaining the first electron micrograph of an Ebola viral particle while working at a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, where he served as Chief of Viropathology, near Emory University in Atlanta in 1976.

Since the discovery of the viruses in 1976 when outbreaks occurred in Sudan and the Democratic Republic of Congo (then called Zaire), Ebola virus disease has been confined to areas in Central Africa, where it is endemic untill the current outbreak.

The first known outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD), occurred between June and November 1976 in Nzara, South Sudan, (then part of Sudan) and was caused by Sudan virus (SUDV), one of the ebolaviruses. The Sudan outbreak infected 284 people and killed 151. The first identifiable case in Sudan occurred on 27 June in a storekeeper in a cotton factory in Nzara, who was hospitalized on 30 June and died on 6 July. While the WHO medical staff involved in the Sudan outbreak were aware that they were dealing with a heretofore unknown disease, the actual "positive identification" process and the naming of the virus did not occur until some months later in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

On 26 August 1976, a second outbreak of EVD caused by Ebola virus (formerly called Zaire ebolavirus) began in Yambuku, a small rural village in Mongala District in northern Democratic Republic of the Congo (then known as Zaire). The first person infected with the disease was village school headmaster Mabalo Lokela, who had toured an area near the Central African Republic border along the Ebola River between 12–22 August. On 8 September he died of what would become known as the Ebola virus (EBOV) member of the ebolaviruses. (The Ebola River in northern Democratic Republic of the Congo is the headstream of the Mongala River, a tributary of the Congo River. It is roughly 250 km in length. In 1976 the Ebola virus (EBOV) was first identified near the river)
DateDecember 2013 – present[1]
  • Reported Cases / Deaths (as of 8 October 2014)
  •  Total: 8,400 / 4,033
  • Liberia Liberia: 4,076 / 2,316 (as of 7 October 2014)
  • Sierra Leone Sierra Leone: 2,950 / 930 (as of 8 October 2014)
  • Guinea Guinea: 1,350 / 778 (as of 7 October 2014)
  • Nigeria Nigeria: 20 / 8 (as of 8 October 2014)
  • United States United States: 2 / 1 (as of 12 October 2014)
  • Senegal Senegal: 1 / 0 (as of 8 October 2014)
  • Spain Spain: 1 / 0 (as of 8 October 2014)
An epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD) is ongoing in certain West African countries. It began in Guinea in December 2013 then spread to Liberia and Sierra Leone. A few much smaller subsidiary outbreaks have occurred elsewhere, with outbreaks in Nigeria and Senegal that appear to have been successfully contained .

The Director-General of the WHO, Margaret Chan, called the outbreak "the largest, most complex and most severe we've ever seen" and said that it "is racing ahead of control efforts". In a 26 September statement, the WHO said, "The Ebola epidemic ravaging parts of West Africa is the most severe acute public health emergency seen in modern times."

No specific treatment for the disease is yet available. Efforts to help those who are infected are supportive and include giving either oral rehydration therapy (slightly sweet and salty water to drink) or intravenous fluids.


World Events

1792 – In Washington, D.C., the cornerstone of the United States Executive Mansion (known as the White House since 1818) is laid.
1843 – In New York City, Henry Jones and 11 others found B'nai B'rith (the oldest Jewish service organization in the world).
1881 – First known conversation in modern Hebrew by Eliezer Ben-Yehuda and friends.
1884 – Greenwich, in London, England, is established as Universal Time meridian of longitude.
1885 – The Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) is founded in Atlanta, United States.
1892 – Edward Emerson Barnard discovers D/1892 T1, the first comet discovered by photographic means, on the night of October 13–14.
1917 – The "Miracle of the Sun" is witnessed by an estimated 70,000 people in the Cova da Iria in Fátima, Portugal.
1923 – Ankara replaces Istanbul as the capital of Turkey.
1976 – A Bolivian Boeing 707 cargo jet crashes in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, killing 100 (97, mostly children, killed on the ground).
1976 – The first electron micrograph of an Ebola viral particle is obtained by Dr. F.A. Murphy, now at U.C. Davis, who was then working at the C.D.C.
1977 – Four Palestinians hijack Lufthansa Flight 181 to Somalia and demand release of 11 members of the Red Army Faction.
1983 – Ameritech Mobile Communications (now AT&T Inc.) launched the first US cellular network in Chicago.
1990 – End of the Lebanese Civil War. Syrian forces launch an attack on the free areas of Lebanon removing General Michel Aoun from the presidential palace.
1992 – An Antonov An-124 operated by Antonov Airlines registered CCCP-82002, crashes near Kiev, Ukraine killing 8.
2010 – The 2010 Copiapó mining accident in Copiapó, Chile comes to an end as all 33 miners arrive at the surface after surviving a record 69 days underground awaiting rescue.

Fighting Emotion (3)

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